The comparison of Urdu and Turkmen

At first, these two languages possess to different families of them. Urdu is Indo-Aryan and Turkmen is Turkic but both of them existed in Central Asia.


This image above shows the area of the Turkmen language and an image below shows area of Urdu.




As it is shown, Urdu has its influence in India and Turkmen is a languge of the area beside Caspian Sea. But modern linguists can’t find aby bature of Urdu sounds and assume that it was formed by the ancient Turkmen language.


Step 1. Comparison of sounds

Table below shows sounds in modern Turkmen and table below it, shows the Urdu sounds.



The result is that many Urdu sounds can’t be borrowed from Turkmen and Urdu seems to be comparative language from Arabic, Persian, Turkmen, Hindi and any other regional languages. But this conclusion is former and it will be repeated farther with concrete figures.

Necessity to divide sounds onto aspirated and non-aspirated in table isn’t here, so the first group of Urdu sounds in Nasal.

Nasal sounds are

m (+), mʱ, n (+), mʱ, ŋ.

Plosive-Affricative sounds are

p (+), pʰ, b (+), bʱ, , t (+), tʰ, d (+), dʱ, , ʈ, ʈʰ, ɖ, ɖʱ, tʃ (+), tʃʰ, dʒ (+), dʒʱ, k (+), kʰ, ɡ (+), ɡʱ, , ɢ

Fricative sounds are

F, v, ʃ (+), ʒ, x, ɣ, (h), h (+)

Flap sounds are

r, ɾʱ, ɽ, ɽʱ

Approximant sounds are

ʋ, l (+), lʱ, j (+)

As it is shown 14 (from 41 sounds) sounds are borrowed from Turkmen and it’s equal to one third of the Urdu sounds. It seem to be as casual borrowing because the borrowed sounds are existed in every language.

Step 2. Examining of words.

Engliah Turkmen Uedu
abandon tallamak. chhor dena
ability baçarnyk; qaabliyat
able (to be) baçarrnak qaabil
abnormal adaty ctil. khilaaf
abortion gyrmak. asqaat
about (almost) diYen ialy. gird (taqreeban)

This short analyze gives none results and no one word from this list is like another.

Step 3. Letters’ sounds

This stage observes letters’ sounds in the both of the languages because it is necessary here.

Turkmen letters Turkmen sounds Urdu
ah a a (+)
beh b b (+)
cheh ch p (+)
deh d
eh e t (+)
a a s
eff f dʒ (+)
geh g t͡ʃ
heh kh h
ee ee x
jeh j d (+)
zheh dj ɖ
ka k z (+)
ell l r (+)
em m ɽ
en n z
eng ng ʒ
o o s
ir ʃ
peh p s
er er z
eth th
sheh sh z
the t o
ooh oo ɣ
u u f (+)
weh w q
uyi y k (+)
yeh y’ g (+)
theh z l (+)
yo m (+)
yo* n(+)
short yu ◌̃
short y u (+)

As it is shown above, Urdu is more soundful than Turkmen. And Turkmen’s alphabet sounds are close to Persian’s but not so sogt.

Conclusion is that Turkmen language isn’t close to Urdu and Persian. Rge typology of Turkmen approves this conclusion, it is a Turkic language, without any doubts and it can’t be close to Persian and Urdu.


www. Ipfd . io,


This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.

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