The comparison of Urdu, Persian and Hindi-part — II

In the previous article you could see inrtoduction to the comparison of Urdu, Persian and Hindi-part — I. The comparison shows verbal forms in different tenses and there is some mechanism of borrowing grammatical structures. The analyze of prepositions was made early and this looks closely onto grammatical issues. The table shows the different verbs with their three verbal forms.

The changing those can be traced are shown below. The Persian language isn’t used here because it is shown that Hindi and Urdu are Indo-Aryan, it was approved in the previous article about them.

  • Lag – lagi
  • Hai – hain
  • Uske — usake
  • Unke – unake
  • Mere – mere
  • Kaar – kareen
  • Guevraj – geraaj
  • Bahar – baahar
  • Kitab – kitaab
  • Kitabe’n – kitaaben

As it is shown above, the both of the languages are Indo-Aryan and next stage is analyze of syllables in their ancestral language, it means in Proto-Indo-Aryan.

Appendix 1, Persian and Punjabi and Hindi words

Marks which are shown below associate the three languages between one another..

Translation Punjabi Persian Hindi
I main man main
thou tūn tu tum
we asīn mA ham
this ih in is
that uh An us
who kaun ke kaun
what che kya
not nahīn ne nahin
all sabh hame sab
many bahut besyAri anek
one ikk yel ek
two do do do
big vadda bozorg bade
long lamba tulani lamba
small choṭa kuchek chhota
woman zanāni zan mahila
man
(adult male)
ādami mard aadamee
man
(human being)
manukh ensAn aadamee
bird panchhi parande chidiya
dog kutta sag kutta
louse jūn bAshe joon
tree darakhat dirakht ped
seed bi bazr beej
leaf patta barg pattee
root jar saqf jad
bark chhill paranda chhaal
skin chamri post tvacha
meat mās gosht maans
blood khūn khun rakt
bone haddi ustukhwAn haddee
fat (n.) charbi charbi vasa
fire agg atish aag
egg anda tuhm anda
horn sing shAkh seeng
tail pūnchh dum poonchh
feather khambh par pankh
fish machchhi mAhi machhalee
hair vāl mu (mo) kesh
head sir sar sir
ear kann gosh kaan
eye akkh chashm aankh
fingernail nahun nakhun nakh
nose nakk bini naak
mouth mūnh dahon munh
tooth dand dandAn daant
tongue jībh zabAn jubaan
foot pair pA pair
knee goda zAnu ghutana
hand hatth dast haath
belly dhidd shikam pet
neck gardan gardan naichl
breast chhāti piston stan
heart dil dig dil
liver jigar jigar jigar
drink pīna bushidan peena
eat khāna khwurdan khaana
bite kattna gazidan kaatana
see dekhna didan dekhana
hear sunna shanidan sunana
know jānna dAnestan jaanana
sleep sauna khAbidan sona
die marna mardan marana
kill mārna kashtan maarana
swim tairna sheno kardan tairana
fly (v.) uddna paridan udana
walk turna rAh raftan chalana
come auna residan aana
lie letna durogh jhooth bolana
sit baithna neshestan baithiye
stand kharna istAdan khada
give dena dAdan dena
say kahina goftan kahana
sun sūraj khorshid ravi
moon chand mAh chaand
star tāra setAre taara
water pāni Ab paanee
rain mīnh bArAn baarish
stone patthar sang patthar
sand reta rig ret
earth dharti zamin prthvee
cloud baddal Abr baadal
smoke dhūān dud dhuaan
ashes suāh khAkistar raakh
burn sārna sozAndan jalaana
road sarak rAh sadak
mountain pahār koh parvat
red lāl surkh laal
green hara sabz hara
yellow pīla zard peela
white chitta sefid saphed
black kāla siyAh kaalee
night rāt shab raat
warm garam garm garam
cold thanda sard sardee
full pūra pur poorn
new navān nau naya
good changa khub achchha
round gol gird gol
dry sukka khushk sookha
name nām nAm naam

This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.

Resources,

Google Translator,

Digital Dictionsries of South Asia,

Punjabi101.

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