The changes of Persian from Punjabi words

This analyze shows changes in the words according to their Hindi bases. Series of consonant and vowel transmissions are shown below because Hindi is closer to Punjabi and Persian which is a contrast language from Indo-Iranian family. Indo-Aryan languages were formed in India and surrounded territories but Persian was formed on the territory of modern Iran.

If you want to read about a difference betwen Persian and Punjabi and Hindi words, you’ll look it here.


Persian had close relations with Hindiustani that was the ancestor of modern Hindi and those connections formed changings in ancient Persian. The table below shows to You a part of those changes which are viewed on modern Persian. The table below shows changes in the three moments of every Persian word. Of course, it is shown if changes exist in some concrete word.

Th etable of changes of Persian from Punjabi words

In the beginning In the middle At the end
e > ye I > none s > n
u > none aun > e
ch > none k > l
I > a alee > i
aa > a (2 times) air > aa
t > tt t > g
n > nn ena > Adan
ana > dan ish > An
a > i et > ig
a > none ee > none
uu > u m > r
ya > u


There are three types of the changes, for the vowel and for the consonants and the third type is change of several sounds and syllables. The frequently changes are,A little comment: Persian A = “aa”, they are equal, it is a long sound “a”. “ee” means the long sound “I”, “uu” is a long sound “u”.

  • aa > a

It isn’t so big number but is shows that traits of Arabic to Persian are saved in Persian. Of course, other changes in short vowels are here too, like:

  • I > a.
  • a > i.
  • a > none.
  • u > none.

Also there are changes of the consonants, like,

  • n > nn.
  • t > tt.
  • s > n.
  • k > l.
  • t > g.
  • m > r.

It gives an idea that the vowels are mostly changeable when a word was borrowed from Hindustani but this is different than the colloqualization in Persian because there are changes in “An” (aan) that changes onto “uun” and Am (aam) > uum.

According to the results of the analyze above, Hindustani (Hindi) words had a little influence onto Persian but those words were rarely borrowed from India’s languages and if it existed, the words changed a lot. The changes touched roots of them.

This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.

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