A Basic vocabulary of probably Proto-Punjabi-Hindi language

The list of words was formed in the previous article on the base of the modern Punjabi, Hindi and Persian words. A list of true cognates is formed in this article for the reconstruction of the Proto-Punjabi-Hindi language of the Middle Asia. According to the suggestion, the Proto-Punjabi (at short) was on the territory between Iran and India, it is a land of modern Pakistan. This Proto-language is theoretical but according to my idea, the land of Pakistan couldn’t be without any proto-language.

hindi-logo.jpg        The Appendix 1 contains a hundred of the Punjabi words and their translations onto Persian and Hindi. Cells of the table which are marked with the yellow color show close pronunciations of the words. Marked cells form the series of words which shows relations between the Punjabi, Persian and Hindi languages. Punjabi and Hindi are the languages from Indo-Aryan family and Persian is from Indo-Iranian and these similarities are shown clearly in the Appendix 1.

According Appendix 1, the Appendix 2 is formed and it shows changings in manner of pronunciation for the marked words. These changings are formed from the base Old Indo-Aryan language  It was from 300 BC and Hindi was formed by the Vedic language from the 1st millennium AD. If Sanskrit is very old language, Hindi (Hindustani) is a dialect of Sauraseni and was formed after the 10th century. An idea is Hindi which was a dialect older than Punjabi and it is a base language in the farther analyze.

Appendix 1

Translation Punjabi Persian Hindi
I main i > none

man

main
thou m > n

tūn

u > none

tu

tum
this s > h

ih

s > n

in

is
that s > h

uh

  us
who kaun aun > e

ke

kaun
what ya > ee

  kya
not nahīn   nahin
all none > h

sabh

  sab
one e > i,

k > kk

ikk

k > l

e > ye

yel

ek
two do do do
long lamba   lamba
small h > none

choṭa

  chhota
man
(adult male)
ādami   aadamee
dog kutta   kutta
louse jūn   joon
seed j > none,

ee > i

bi

  beej
leaf ee > a

patta

  pattee
root d > r

jar

  jad
bark aa > i

chhill

  chhaal
meat n > none

mās

  maans
bone ee > I (?)

haddi

  haddee
fire aa > a,

g > gg

agg

  aag
egg anda   anda
horn ee > i (?)

sing

  seeng
tail  

pūnchh

  poonchh
fish ch > chch

alee > i

machchhi

ch > none,

alee > i

mAhi

machhalee
head sir I > a

sar

sir
ear aa > a,

n > nn

kann

  kaan
eye n > k,

aa > a

akkh

  aankh
fingernail none > un,

kh > h

nahun

none > un

nakhun

nakh
nose aa > a,

k > kk

nakk

  naak
mouth u > uu

mūnh

  munh
tooth aa > a,

t > d

dand

  daant
tongue u > ee,

aan > h

jībh

  jubaan
foot pair air > A (aa)

pA

pair
hand aa > a,

t > tt

hatth

  haath
breast chhāti piston stan
heart dil l > g

dig

dil
liver jigar jigar jigar
drink pīna   peena
eat khāna   khaana
bite kattna   kaatana
see a > none

dekhna

  dekhana
hear n > nn

sunna

  sunana
know n > nn

jānna

  jaanana
sleep sauna   sona
die rana > ma

marna

ana > dan

mardan

marana
kill mārna   maarana
swim rana > ma

tairna

  tairana
fly (v.) d > dd,

a > none

uddna

  udana
come a > u

auna

  aana
sit iya > na

baithna

  baithiye
stand d > m

kharna

  khada
give dena ena > Adan

dAdan

dena
say a > i

kahina

  kahana
moon aa > a

chand

  chaand
star tāra   taara
water pāni   paanee
rain ish > An

bArAn

baarish
stone patthar   patthar
sand none > a

reta

et > ig

rig

ret
cloud aa > a,

d > dd

baddal

  baadal
smoke u > uu

dhūān

  dhuaan
road d > r

sarak

  sadak
red lāl   laal
green hara   hara
yellow pīla   peela
black ee > a

kāla

  kaalee
night rāt   raat
warm garam a > none

garm

garam
cold ee > none

sard

sardee
full n > a

pūra

uu > u,

m > r

pur

poorn
new ya > vaan

navān

ya > u

nau

naya
round gol gird gol
dry oo > u,

kh > kk,

sukka

khushk sookha
name nām nAm naam

Resources,

Google Translator,

Digital Dictionsries of South Asia,

Punjabi101.

This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.

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