There are many languages in the modern Pakistan, five of them are official and they are Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Urdu and Saraiki. Of course all of them are written and written by Arabic-Persian script with the similar pronunciation with some differences between the languages. The similar writing system doesn’t mean that they can replace one another because these languages aren’t equal at all. The four of them are Indo-Aryan and the last (Pashto) is Indo-Iranian language. Indo-Aryan languages have the Indian nature and Pashto closer to Persian and other Iranian languages. Some sounds of the four languages are slightly different but it is formed by the territorial differences.
At first, the zones of using the languages of Pakistan is show below. This map shows areas of existing of primary and secondary languages which will be shown closer below map.
As it is shown, the Indo-Aryan languages fill the most part of India, except Southern India. According to the materials, there four non-Indo-Aryan languages (Pashto, Brahmi, Balti, and Burushaski) which are not from the Indo-Aryan family of languages.
Pasto is an Indo-Iranian language with Perso-Arabic writing, Balti is a Tibetian-Kamauuri language with Perso-Arabic or Tibetian script,Brahmi is an Indo-Aryan language but it has Sanskrit writing system and
Burushashki is an isolate language of far districts of the Southern Pakistan.
The most part of the Pakistan languages have the Persian-Arabic writting system with some exceptions in the letters. Some of the languages have additional letters except standard Persian. For example Punjabi has a letter “ے” that doesn’t exist in Modern Persian and so on but the Persian writing system is prevailed for the languages of the Indo-Aryan family.
The necessity of showing squares of the territory and amount of inhabitants of Pakistan is been here, because Pakistan is the big country and its languages have different territories of using. So next article shows amount of speakers and shows concrete languages of Pakistan.
This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.