The Neolithic migrations are shown in this article because the Neolithic era is a very famous moment and it is like a transmission of the Mesolithic tribal societies to Copper Age’s organization. The model of the abstract Neolithic European culture shows that the Neolithic society was high-organized and it was developed into Copper Age’s. The map of the Neolithic migrations along Europe is shown below.
The Purple area (Light and Dark purple) is areas of the Kurgan culture and it was a homeland of Indo-Europeans. According to the modern investigations of archeologists and historians and linguistics, the Indo-Europeans divided into the two groups, the first went to Europe and the second to India, they were from the 4th millennium BC (to Europe) and from the 3rd -2nd millennium BC (to the northern part of India). The connection of the Finno-Ugrian family of proto-languages and Indo-European gave the new languages of Europe. Finland and surrounded lands were the places of the intersections of Finno-Ugric tribes and Indo-Europeans. These two languages’ groups were formed separately and carried common traits but Proto-Finno-Ugric is been unknown but it is a part of it and the second, it is reconstructed partly. Sammallahti worked with Proto-Finno-Ugric language and he found some moments and reconstructed some chain shifts of the vowels of proto-Finno-Ugric language. Some chain shifts are demonstrated here, *aa and *ää -> *oo and *ee, *a -> *u before the subsequent *I and shortened long vowels in closed syllables and subsequent *a and *ä with *aa and *ää.
These chain shifts are given full information about the vowels of Proto-Finno-Ugrian language. These chain shifts of the vowel can be used in the comparison of the Sami languages of Scandinavia but according to the theme, the northern way to Ural (because the proto-Finno-Ugric language is a part of the Uralic languages family) is needed to be define by the comparisons of languages along the way of the Finno-Ugric migration. It will be shown farther.
“The Uralic languages” — PIRKKO SUIHKONEN, University of Helsinki
This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.