Climatic periods in the Mesolithic era

From 11600 BC – the glacial was retreated from Scandinavia and also, it was sequenced by changing tundra landscape to forests like taiga because of fast warming of the climate. It was a period of the existing of the Bromme culture.

10500 BC – around it was the warming in the northern Scandinavia but there was the tundra’s landscape.

9500 BC – this was a starting of thee warming and because of it some settlement of the Ahres burg culture were founded.

From 7000 BC (the 7th millennium BC) – the new warming of the Scandinavian climate evoked the wide-spreading the Fosna-Hensbacka culture

From the 6th millennium BC – there was the new humid warming of the climate and it was bring to the Kongemose culture.

7000 BC – 3000 BC – Holocene climatic optimum, it was a period of the warming and the last two dates were as the part of HCO.

The fundamental cultures appeared during the increasing of the temperature. And the next scheme of the Scandinavian Mesolithic cultures show their time periods according to the climatic changes.

The Scandinavian Peninsula started to settle from the beginning of the warming in the 11th millennium BC. And the ending of the period was in the Scandinavian Neolithic era. It means that the period from 11th millennium to the 3rd was the stage of the Mesolithic era on the Scandinavian peninsula and at least more than 9000 years Scandinavia was settled by the Mesolithic people.

Scandinavian Peninsula had the three (without the Subboreal period that is the part of the Holocene climatic optimum) main climatic periods in the Mesolithic era.

  • Preboreal (the 11th millennium BC – the end of the 9th-10th millennium BC).
  • Boreal (around 9000 BC – the 8th millennium BC).
  • Atlantic (the 8th millennium BC – around 5000 BC).
  • Subboreal (around 5000 BC – 3rd millennium BC)
  • Subatlantic (3rd – the present day).

As it is clearly, the abstract Mesolithic culture existed between the Boreal and Atlantic periods and the part of Subboreal period. The last stage brings the Mesolithic cultures to an end but the four previous periods gave some good cases for the Scandinavian cultures.

At the first, these periods above are periods of the climatic chances for the ancient Scandinavian cultures. At the second, every culture possessed its own chronological period of the existing. The list of the Scandinavian cultures can be formed by it. And the periods are marked by the figures from the 1st to the 5th period. It means that Preboreal period is the first and the last one is Subboreal.

The Scandinavian cultures were showed in the previous articles but the list of them is below.

  • Maglemosian (7500 BC – 6000 BC, the 2nd climatic period).
  • Kongemose (6000 BC – 5200 BC, the 3rd period).
  • Erteboller (5300 BC – 3900 BC, the 3rd and 4th periods).
  • Funelbeaker (4000 BC – 2700 BC, 4th period)
  • Pitted Wares (3200 BC – 2300 BC, 4th – 5th period).
  • Fosna-Hensbacka (8300 BC – 7300 BC, the 2nd — 3rd period).

The two most inhabited periods are the third and the fourth. The diagram illustrates it below.

57

It is clear that the periods of high cultural activity were in the middle of the Neolithic age. They are from the Boreal period to thru Subboreal and the result gives some information about the periods themselves. The  most part of the Scandinavian cultures existed from the 9000 BC to the 2500 BC. This conclusion approves by the abstract Mesolithic culture which is formed by the averaging of the Scandinavian culture in the Mesolithic era.

The next stage is analyze of the durations in the next article.

This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.

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