What European cultures were before “Kurgan stage”? Let’s start from the Funnelbeaker culture.
Funnelbeaker culture was spread in the northern center of modern Europe, the image below shows it.
This Neolithic culture existed from 4300 BC to 2800 BC. It was an archeological culture and developed farming and husbandry. This culture occupied the territory of Germany, Bohemia and Netherlands and southern Scandinavia, to part of Sweden and to Poland.
They knew breeding of sheep, cattle, pigs and goats but used also hunting and fishing. People grew barley and wheat on small patches which depleted fast. It was the cause that the population frequently moved onto new territories near them. Also, they knew something about pottery technology. Their burial practices were different according to regions. This culture had some burial traditions and according them, the dead people in their graves had vessels with food, amber jewelry and flint-axes. They also constructed large burial complexes like the largest Satup’s one. According Kurgan hypothesis, this culture was non-Indo-European but local.
Some vessels of Funnelbeaker culture are below.
Archaeological state museum Schleswig-Holstein, Gottorf Castle
Everyone can notice that the form of these vessels is rounded in to the downsides like a form of pear and they were made by the brown clay.
Globular Amphora culture is an archeological culture and it was on the Funnelbeaker culture’s territory in 3400-2800 BC. This culture was bordered with many cultures around it.
Central point of its economy was raising a various types of livestock like pigs in the early stage and any other after that. Also, there were oxen and livestock. They were found in burial graves.
Globular Amphora vessel
Let’s compare these two cultures with Arzachen culture! It was a late Neolithic culture in the northern part of Sardinia and part of the southern Corsica. It was from the 4th to the 3th millennium BC. This culture is marked by “circular graves” and menhirs.
“Circular graves” of Arzachen culture
The people of this culture used pastures rather than farming as the nearest culture in Sardinia. They have aristocratic and individualistic society, unlike Funnelbeaker culture. Their “circular graves” were the way of burying of the members of aristocratic families.
The next one is the nearest Ozieri culture. It was in Sardinia from 3200 BC to 2800 BC. This culture was been beside Arzachen culture in Sardinia, it was contemporaneously with the nearest culture.
This culture was organized around hunter-gathering mixed with husbandry and agriculture.
As we can look, this culture had more complex pottery than the cultures from the North of the Europe. Maybe, this culture had the cult of a mother-goddess.
We will compare all of these cultures between one to another in the next article about the ancient cultures of the Europe.
- “The Roots of Megalithism in the TRB culture”, Seweryn Rzepecki,
- “Archeology and History in Sardinia from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages”, Stephen L. Dyson and Robert J. Rowland, Jr.
This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.