Results of the analyze and Middle English

A result is given by the languages which are been around England in the present days. The English sounds were appeared in English and they aren’t exist in other European languages from the analyzed.

“θ, ð, tʃ, tʒ and ɹ*” are been the clear English sounds. Primary, there is an excerption of the analyze because the sounds which were shown there are the sounds with European origin. Non-European sounds will be shown farther but they will be explained by the comparisons; so exploration of the Middle English is started now..

What was the Middle English? It was the language which formed after the Norman Conquest (1066 B.C.) until the end of 15th century. That language was an ancestor of the Modern English. The sounds from the exploration are shown In the table below.

Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Stop p, b t, d tʃ, dʒ k, g
Fricative f, v θ, ð s, z ʃ (ç) (x) h
Approximant r j w
Lateral l

And modern English sounds,

Labial Dental Alveolar Post — alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p, b t, d k, g
Affricative tʃ, tʒ
Fricative f, v θ, ð s, z ʃ, ʒ h
Approximant l ɹ j w

As you can see above not so many English sounds changed their groups and the next is a list of changing,

  • “r” was disappeared from Alveolar-Approximant sounds.
  • “l” was changed its Lateral-Alveolar group to Approximant-Alveolar.
  • “tʃ, dʒ” sounds were changed from the top group to Affricative.
  • “(ç)” sound had been disappeared from English sounds.
  • All Lateral group of sounds was disappeared too.

It is interesting that only the five sounds were changed their groups but almost all of them are been in the present language.

On this stage of the discovering some suggestion can be formed that “θ, ð, tʃ, tʒ and ɹ” sounds are truly English because these ones don’t exist in modern languages around Britain.

This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.

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