Modern Dutch and modern English

The similarities and the differences between French and English sounds were analyzed in the previous article. Confirmation of the existed conclusions based on Dutch and English are in this article.

The conclusion of the article was that that the series of sounds θ, ð, tʃ, tʒ, ɹ* and h are truly English, it was showed clearly in the previous analyze and that results must be confirm here and exceptions of the existed results are shown here.

English consonant sounds and Dutch consonant sounds were represented below. There are only a table of Dutch sounds because English sounds are shown in the previous article.

Bilabial Labio –


Alveolar Post –


Velar /


Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p, b t, d k, g (ʔ)
Fricative f, v s, z ʃ ʒ x, ɣ ɦ
Trill r
Approximant ʋ l j

English table,

Labial Dental Alveolar Post — alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p, b t, d k, g
Affricative tʃ, tʒ
Fricative f, v θ, ð s, z ʃ, ʒ h
Approximant l ɹ j w


  • Bilabial sounds are similar to Labial sounds; this is permissible because Bilabial sounds are used both lips and Labial ones use only one of them.
  • Labio-Dental sounds are similar to English Dental sounds.
  • If some sound changes its group we will cross it out.

The result table with English as the main language is shown below.

Labial Dental Alveolar Post — alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Affricative tʃ, tʒ
Fricative θ, ð
Approximant ɹ w
  • The sounds ɦ and h are similar one another because both of them are Glottal.

The few of the differences are shown by the previous comparison of French and English sounds but the group “θ, ð, tʃ, tʒ, ɹ and h” sounds was increased by the next element “w”. That group of sounds can be reduced if the three languages are compared each other.

The previous result is that “θ, ð, tʃ, tʒ and ɹ” are truly English but they are examined once more and the next languages around England are Scandinavian and Norwegian.

This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.

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