Fertile Crescent

What can we say about the region with the crescent form? At the first, it is the part of the North Africa, the eastern side of the Mediterranean and the most part of the northern Near East. This region is marked by the special name “cradle of civilization”. Why is it so? A cause of it is very important. This region was the united Mesopotamia, Nile, the Levant and the eastern coast of Mediterranean in the ancient ages.12


We already know that Mesopotamian civilization and the history of that region started in the Lower Paleolithic period. Mesopotamian Agriculture was started from the beginning of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic 1 from 10.000-8.700 BC.  Animal domestication was spreaded from 10.000 BC to the beginning of Pre-Pottery Neolithic 2 at the end of the 9th millennium BC.

But the clear beginning of this civilization was after the end of the last Ice Age (around 10.000 BC). One of the oldest settlements in Mesopotamia was Jarmo (around 7.000 BC), Jericho (Levant), Çatalhöyük (Turkey), Samarra and Tell Halaf. They were in the northern Mesopotamia.  The settlements in the southern Mesopotamia like Eridu needed using of irrigation methods.


Neolithic history of Egypt started in 18.000-15.000 BC from hunter-gatherers and fishers. They were replaced by grain-grinders and their culture. But climate changed in 8.000 BC and wide dry sand areas formed the desert Sahara. All living places were been started to move onto rivers valleys. The biggest of them was Nile River where formed agricultural economy and its society.

Upper and Lower Egypt were two independent centers of culture in about 6.000 BC. The unifying of these two kingdoms happened by King Menes in 3.150 BC. He also established next three Egyptian dynasties. Egypt culture and society flourished from the King Menes. For example, hieroglyphically system of writing was been from 4.000 BC.


Next famous region is the Anatolian peninsula and it means that it is the Old Turkey. What can we say about it? We need recognize that this region is the similar to the Egyptian region by its population. Many of the Neolithic people who lived there spoke Anatolian language which was the branch of Indo-European language.  It is a cause for opinion of some modern scholars about the birthplace of other Indo-European languages but we will return to it in next articles about Kurgan hypostasis.

Hattians and Hurrians were the people of Anatolia who inhabited central and eastern parts around 2.300 BC. Hattians and Huttians were been absorbed in Hittites who arrived in Anatolia around 2.000-1.700 BC. The first area’s empire possessed to Hittites from the 18th to the 13th century BC. Assyrians conquered the southeastern part of Turkey in 1950 BC and they possessed it until the 612 BC.

This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.

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