Neolithic Age

This period has begun about 10.200 BC and has lasted till 4500-2000 BC. This era is marking by many started inventions and any other things. The base point of this period was Middle East and traditionally considered that period was the last stage of Stone Age and this era is divided by archaeologists and historians on the three stages.

Neolithic Age was divided into three stages according the figures from one to three. What is the first era of Neolithic? Neolithic-1 started around 10.000 BC. This period was evidenced by nomadic life-style of hunters. They were formed tribes which lacked their permanent houses, they were had only their territories of hunting. Their places of worshiping were the stony circles which were founded in Turkish Levant. Any other settlements were in Israel, Jordan and Lebanon. Their dating are from 9.500 BC to 9.00 BC.

Neolithic-1 was characterized by farming. What did it mean? It meant that wheat’s crops were harvested after seeded and it produced selection. And result of it was domesticated grain culture like result grain from Emmer grain which was domesticated. And animals were the same too. The first cultivated plant was fig because it couldn’t spread by pollinated but only cuttings. Figs planting was dated 9400 BC. And it was the cause to suggest that it was the beginning of farming.

Permanent settlements became more and more wide spread. Every house had only one room and everyone had its own wall which protected against nearby groups or served for keeping domestic animals.

Next stage was Neolithic-2. It began in 8.800 BC in the Levant (Palestine). Neolithic settlements became larger and scientists  say clearly that the settlement ‘Ain Ghazal (Jordan) was the biggest settlement of Near East which was one with the population 3.000 inhabitants from 7.250 BC to 5.000 BC. A common trait of these Neolithic settlements was rectangular mid-brick houses for one family in each of them.

Very interesting things were Neolithic family graves where people saved skulls of their ancestors. It was an ancestor cult. We will talk about it farther. Skulls were cut off from bodies and the last ones left outside settlements until they were become bones. Those bones collected after that and buried inside the settlements and they were collected under the floor or between houses of the settlements.

The Neolithic-3 period began in around 6.400 BC and the second name of this stage is the Pottery Neolithic of Fertile Crescent.  This stage was the beginning of many civilizations from Turkey to Mesopotamia and Egypt. After these proto-civilization and their Stone-Bronze Age (began in 4.500 BC) Bronze Age began in about 3.500 BC and it replaced Neolithic cultures.

This article was written by Ilya Duchanin.

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